Monitorización del Entrenamiento
A.Viru, M.Viru, A.Volver
of Exercise Biology, University of Tartu
International Sports Science Conference, Vilnius 2004 (Lithuania).
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT OF HIGH PERFORMANCE ATHLETES‘ TRAINING
of the homo olympicus, capable for successful competition in the Olympic
Games, is a result of well-designed cooperation of sport sciences,
medicine, coaching methodology, and management. In this cooperation the
leading position as well as the main responsibility belongs to the coach.
He or she should be enough educated for purposeful application of: (1)
necessary scientific information, (2) the aid of medicine, and (3) social
and financial opportunities in order to be creative and justified in
athletes are involved as subjects in several researches: (1) to be used
for exploration of specialties distinguishing homo olympicus from general
population as well as from less capable athletes. (2) medical
investigations which are obligatory for establishment the accordance of
health conditions to the enhanced demands of the high workloads of
training and competitions, (3) a complex of means for effective guidance
of training with the aid of information obtained by using of methods of
various sciences. It is not wise to suggest that if a research provides
results for solving a scientific problem, it is in any case essential for
guidance of the training process. Although medical investigations are
highly necessary they cannot substitute the information provided by
training monitoring. The purpose of training monitoring is founded on the
necessity of having information on actual effects, knowing that the
training design is adequate at a specific stage for that athlete, and
recognizing the pattern of adaptational possibilities of the athlete. In
all cases, the monitoring has to be founded on recording of the actual
training process. Without this information the results of monitoring have
only an abstract significance. An investigation can be considered to be
the training monitoring, if five principles are followed / 6 /.
• It is
a process performed for the purpose of increasing the effectiveness of
• It is
based on recording changes in an athlete during various stages of training
or under the influence of main elements of sport activities (training
session, competition, microcycle).
• It is
a highly specific process, depending on the sports event, performance
level of the athlete, and age/gender differences. The methods for training
monitoring have to be chosen specifically for the event and the
method or measurement makes sense in training monitoring if it provides
reliable information related to the task being monitored.
information obtained from measurements has to be understandable for making
necessary changes in training design.
principle of the design of training monitoring is minimum testing –
maximum reliable information. A comparatively new, but essential task of
training monitoring is the establishment of the body adaptivity dynamics.
It has been assumed, that exercise training is founded on the body
capacity for adaptation / 4 /. An athlete exhausts a large part of his/her
adaptational possibilities (adaptivity) to reach the peak performance.
Information about the loss of adaptivity is necessary to change timely the
training in order to avoid overtraining. Immunological / 2 / and hormonal
/ 6 / studies provide perspective opportunities for assessing the
adaptivity. According to results obtained in cross-country skiers / 5 /,
as well as to the outcome of other studies / 1,3 / enhanced strain of
adaptational processes are indicated by high cortisol and low testosterone
basal and post-exercise levels. A suppressed or reversed cortisol
responses, blunted growth hormone response in heavy exercise and low basal
testosterone level appear when athlete’s adaptivity drops.
Training monitoring is necessary to help coach in training guide. It is an
individualized process founded on follow up studies with the same athlete.
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